Thursday 28-05-2020

NIKK Knowledge Base: A

You are currently at the letter A of the Nikk Knowledge base. If you require further information we are pleased to help you - please do not hesitate contacting us.

Abrasion

Abrasion is an erosion process where due to the impact of particles the surface of plastic material will be rubbing away. Plastic materials often have a high abrasion resistance that depends on:
• Plastic material:
     - Surface hardness
     - Damping
     - E-Modulus
     - Elongation at break
• Hitting particles
     - Concentration
     - Velocity
     - Particle mass
     - Particle morphology

Absorption
The absorption of a plastic material is the uptake of organic or inorganic molecules Plastics often could absorb solvents that will influence the mechanical properties dramatically.

Acids
An acid is a chemical solution with a pH-value below 7.

Acrylate
Acrylate is chemically speaking an organic salt from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid: [CH2-C2H3-C-OOH]. Methacrylates provide as basis for production of a lot of polymers: e.g. PMMA, acrylic adhesives (superglue). Special acrylic resins are also used as coupling agent for anti-adhesive polymers.

Additive
An additive is an aid to increase the properties of polymers.

Adhesion
Adhesion is the physical interaction of two different materials or molecules describing the sticking to another partner. Adhesion forces are physical forces and could be influenced by means of thermal energy (heat).

Aluminium hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide is an inorganic leach: Al(OH)3. In plastic materials it is often used as a flame protection additive because at temperatures above 200° C an endothermic reaction to aluminium oxide occurs.

Amorphous
An amorphous polymer has no crystalline or spherolitic structure. Amorphous plastics are: PVC, PMMA, A-PET, PET-G, PC. Amorphous polymers are usually transparent.

Anisotropy
If the properties of a material are dependant from the direction then this material is called anisotropic. The anisotropy of a material is strongly dependant on the production process and/or reinforcing fibres. An injection moulded material has a big anisotropy due to the production process.

Anti-adhesive
The outmost property of an anti-adhesive polymer is the fact that the sticking of fluids or solid matter is not possible. Anti-adhesive polymers will be often used in applications were the surface should remain clean (anti graffiti).

Antimony pentoxide
Antimony pentoxide is a yellow powder insoluble in water. In plastic materials it is often used as a flame retardant additive because it reacts endothermic at high temperature. A disadvantage is the carcinogen potential.

Antimony trioxide
Antimony trioxide is a white powder insoluble in water. Comparable to antimony pentoxide it is used as a flame retardant additive for plastic materials in combination with bromated or chlorinated organic compounds. Antimony trioxide is under cloud of carcinogen potential.

Antioxidant 
An antioxidant is an organic compound that reduces the risk of oxidation of polymers. Polymers are often sensitive to degradation due to oxidation An antioxidant is an organic compound that reduces the risk of oxidation of polymers. Polymers are often sensitive to degradation due to oxidation (reaction with oxygen). Antioxidants inhibit the oxidation mostly for many years. For industrial used modern PE100 or PP materials the lifetime amounts more than 100 years at 20° C and water due the influence of antioxidants.

Antistatic
An antistatic polymer has a defined surface resistivity that avoids electrical charging of surfaces due to friction or other electrical effects. There are An antistatic polymer has a defined surface resistivity that avoids electrical charging of surfaces due to friction or other electrical effects. There are many different methods to produce antistatic polymers. Mostly antistatic agents (organic molecules) with hydrophilic properties were used: amino derivates or amino di-stearates) The electrical resistance >1015 Ohm is reduced to below 109 Ohm. Antistatic agents and therefore also the antistatic polymers need for a proper function a relative humidity of 60% in the atmosphere.

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